SOIL SAMPLING GUIDELINES
?Determinethe area that is to be sampled.
?Ensurethat the area being sampled does not exceed 10 - 20 hectares and that it is
?Takenotice ifa block consists of more than one distinct soil type – if it does,
sample them separately.
?Avoidareas that differ in crop growth or where large amounts of mill mud or other
amendments have been dumped (sample such areas separately if necessary).
?Infield sampling is best done with an auger (either a turning auger or a soil tube).
?Limit to a minimum of at least 10 or 12 ‘augerings’ of soil should be collected from
the area to a depth of about 20 cm using a zig-zag or grid pattern
?Thebasic principle is that more ‘augerings’ are better than fewer.
?Organise allthe ‘augerings’ to be collected in a good-quality plastic bag or a clean
plastic bucket to form a single composite sample.
?Proper care should be taken not to use a bucket with a galvanised handle as this
source of zinc could contaminate the soil sample.
?Repeated mixing of all ‘augerings’ of composite samples is essential to ensure a
?Only dispatch a sub sample if the complete sample is greater than 1kg (500 g – 1
kg is sufficient for dispatch to the laboratory).
?Forward this sample to a reputable laboratory for analysis.
?It is advantageous to supply as many details as possible on a label and on the
sample bag to ensure that the sample can be easily identified, and that
meaningful interpretation of the results is possible.
?The compilation of all information is important in that soil assays conducted by the
laboratory correspond to those calibrated for the specific crop production required.
Inkerman lime & gypsum acknowledges that some technical information
contained in this document has been sourced from publications available
from several worldwide media sources.
What application rates should be used?
Generally speaking (this will be confirmed from soil test), apply 2.3 – 4.6t Limestone per ha for upward pH correction. This recommendation will be dependent on type of limestone or gypsum available and the severity of the pH level of the soil. Soils with a pH level of 5.9 or lower are considered critical and should be treated to increase the pH level to 6.0 or higher. Maintenance applications should consist of applying Limestone annually or with each full crop cycle. Similarly gypsum may be used at corresponding rates to lower pH reading or as advised from soil test. Gypsum and Limestone may be applied to the soil at any time; however the preferred time of application is several weeks prior to planting.
Many growers are opting for a maintenance 50/50 blend applied at 4t per ha to optimise the $ returns and having more friable and productive soils.
Speak to us regarding your anticipated requirements – We have an Agronomist on hand, access to Soil Testing facilities and undertake to visit your farm this season whenever possible or as required.
ACTIVE SILICON FOR INCREASING SALT TOLERANCE IN PLANTS
Kosobryukhov, A1, Shabnova, N1, Kreslavsky, V1 and Matichenkov, V1
1Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino,
Moscow region, Russia 142290
Salt toxicity is a worldwide agricultural problem. Numerous studies have
demonstrated the benefits of silicon (Si) for higher plants, particularly for gramineous
plants. The work presented here studied physiological responses of salt-stressed
wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) in the presence and the absence of Si in soil
under controlled conditions.
The treatments in the experiment were: control, 0.5 g Si and 1 g amorphous Si per kg soil with NaCl in irrigation water. The growth parameters, photosynthesis, respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence were determined. Growing of plants under salt stress led to a decrease in photosynthetic rate. The addition of Si to the soil resulted in an increased rate of photosynthesis from 158 to 520%, depending on salt concentration in the soil. Chlorophyll fluorescence and analysis of model parameters of photosynthesis indicated that Si enhanced photochemical efficiency. Leaf and stem dry matter was depressed under salt stress; however, this negative effect was decreased by the addition of Si.
Hence, Si is beneficial in improving the photosynthesis and growth of wheat plants under high soil salinity. Several hypotheses of the active Si impact on salt stress in plants were suggested:
(i) improved photosynthetic activity,
(ii) increased antioxidant enzyme activity,
(iii) increased concentration of soluble substances in the xylem, which resulted in reduced sodium adsorption by plants.
A NEW SILICON TECHNOLOGY FOR POWDERY MILDEW
PROTECTION IN IPM STRATEGIES
Botta, A1, Sierras, N1, Marin, C1, Carrion, M1 and Pinol, R1
1R&D Department, Plant Physiology Division, Bioiberica, SA Pol Ind.
Mas Puigvert. Ctra. N-II, Km 680.6, 08389 Palafolls, Barcelona, Spain
Powdery mildew type fungi are among the most persistent and common diseases
limiting production of a wide range of crops worldwide. In addition to direct damage
caused by the pathogen, fungal disease also weakens the plant’s resistance to any
biotic or abiotic stress factor. With this in mind, the R&D Department of Bioiberica,
SA, focused on plant stress management to develop a new foliar spray product
containing amino acids plus soluble active silicon (Si).
This approach combines the well-known beneficial properties of both components: the biostimulant effect of amino acids, which helps plants to rapidly overcome physiological stress, and the effect of Si on the plant’s resistance to fungal infections. Two modes of action have been reported to elucidate the Si effect: a structural reinforcement function due to its deposition underneath the plant cell wall and, more recently, the role of soluble Si as an inducer of plant defense responses.
Regardless of these mechanisms acting in an independent or complementary way, alternative plant disease protection treatments have recently aroused more interest due to limitations on the use of pesticides and environmental concerns. This study sums up the results of several new product trials in different plant-pathogen systems.
Findings confirm a synergic effect of amino acids plus Si on a reduction in the incidence and severity of powdery mildew in different plant species of agricultural interest, such as fruit trees and horticultural crops. The use of this new double-action product permits a reduction in the number of fungicide applications while improving health and yield parameters in sustainable crop management.
Keywords: silicon, biostimulant, stress, powdery mildew
RESPONSE OF RICE AND SUGARCANE TO MAGNESIUM SILICATE
IN DIFFERENT SOILS OF COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA
1Carrera 57 #14-44, Phone (1)4177903, Bogota, Colombia, South America
Magnesium silicate is a natural product found in Colombia, South America, and is
being used extensively as a soil conditioner and source of soluble Mg and Si for
different crops. Magnesium silicate contains 31% MgO and 32% SiO2.